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The Wide Area Augmentation System ([[WAAS General Introduction|WAAS]]) is the United States [[SBAS General Introduction|Satellite Based Augmentation System]]. The programme, started in 1992, is being carried out by the [http://www.faa.gov/ Federal Aviation Agency (FAA)]<ref name="FAA_NAV_HISTORY">[http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/techops/navservices/history/satnav/index.cfm Navigation Services - History - Satellite Navigation,] [http://www.faa.gov/ FAA.]</ref> and is specially developed for the civil aviation community.<ref name="FAA_WAAS">[http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/techops/navservices/gnss/waas/ Navigation Services - Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)], [http://www.faa.gov/ FAA.]</ref> The system, which was declared operational in late 2003,<ref name="STANFORD_WAAS">[http://waas.stanford.edu/research/waas.htm Wide Area Differential GPS (WADGPS), Stanford University]</ref> currently supports thousands of aircraft instrument approaches in more than one thousand airports in USA and Canada.<ref name="APPROACHES">[http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/techops/navservices/gnss/approaches/index.cfm GNSS - GPS/WAAS Approaches,] [http://www.faa.gov/ Federal Aviation Agency (FAA).]</ref> WAAS service area includes CONUS, Alaska, Canada and Mexico.<ref name="WAASExpanded">[http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/techops/navservices/gnss/waas/news/ WAAS Service Expanded into Canada and Mexico, September 28, 2007,] [http://www.faa.gov/ Federal Aviation Agency (FAA).]</ref> The WAAS programme is continuously in evolution; two development phases have been already covered, a third is in progress, and there are plans to improve the capability of the system in parallel with the evolution of the SBAS standards towards a dual-frequency augmentation service.<ref name="EXTENSION">[http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/techops/navservices/gnss/library/satnav/media/SatNav_March08.pdf SatNav News, Vol. 33, March 2008,] [http://www.faa.gov/ Federal Aviation Agency (FAA).]</ref>
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The Wide Area Augmentation System ([[WAAS General Introduction|WAAS]]) is the United States [[SBAS General Introduction|Satellite Based Augmentation System]]. The programme, started in 1992, is being carried out by the [http://www.faa.gov/ Federal Aviation Agency (FAA)]<ref name="FAA_NAV_HISTORY">[http://www.faa.gov Navigation Services - History - Satellite Navigation,] [http://www.faa.gov/ FAA.]</ref> and is specially developed for the civil aviation community.<ref name="FAA_WAAS">[http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/techops/navservices/gnss/waas/ Navigation Services - Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)], [http://www.faa.gov/ FAA.]</ref> The system, which was declared operational on July 10, 2003on July 10, 2003,<ref name="STANFORD_WAAS">[https://gps.stanford.edu/research/currentcontinuing-research/waas-sbas Wide Area Differential GPS (WADGPS), Stanford University]</ref> currently supports thousands of aircraft instrument approaches in more than one thousand airports in USA and Canada.<ref name="APPROACHES">[http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/techops/navservices/gnss/approaches/index.cfm GNSS - GPS/WAAS Approaches,] [http://www.faa.gov/ Federal Aviation Agency (FAA).]</ref> WAAS service area includes CONUS, Alaska, Canada and Mexico.<ref name="WAASExpanded">[http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/techops/navservices/gnss/waas/news/ WAAS Service Expanded into Canada and Mexico, September 28, 2007,] [http://www.faa.gov/ Federal Aviation Agency (FAA).]</ref> The WAAS programme is continuously in evolution; three development phases have been already covered, and there are on-going plans to improve the capability of the system in parallel with the evolution of the SBAS standards towards a dual-frequency augmentation service.<ref name="EXTENSION">[http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/techops/navservices/gnss/library/satnav/media/SatNav_March08.pdf SatNav News, Vol. 33, March 2008,] [http://www.faa.gov/ Federal Aviation Agency (FAA).]</ref>, <ref name="STANFORD_WAAS"/>
 
 
 
==WAAS Performance==
 
==WAAS Performance==
 
Satellite Based Augmentation Systems ([[SBAS General Introduction|SBAS]]) performances are usually described in terms of [[Integrity|integrity]], [[Accuracy|accuracy]], [[Availability|availability]], and [[Continuity|continuity]].
 
Satellite Based Augmentation Systems ([[SBAS General Introduction|SBAS]]) performances are usually described in terms of [[Integrity|integrity]], [[Accuracy|accuracy]], [[Availability|availability]], and [[Continuity|continuity]].
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In this table, the integrity requirements are given as the probability of HMI, namely Hazardously Misleading Information. In addition to integrity, accuracy, availability and continuity, the table shows the specification for Time To Alert (TTA) and for Horizontal and Vertical Alert Limits (HAL and VAL).
 
In this table, the integrity requirements are given as the probability of HMI, namely Hazardously Misleading Information. In addition to integrity, accuracy, availability and continuity, the table shows the specification for Time To Alert (TTA) and for Horizontal and Vertical Alert Limits (HAL and VAL).
  
On July 10, 2003, the WAAS system was certified for safety-of-life aviation, covering 95% of the contiguous U.S. and part of Alaska <ref name="STANFORD_WAAS">[http://waas.stanford.edu/research/waas.htm Wide Area Differential GPS (WADGPS), Stanford University]</ref><ref>[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wide_Area_Augmentation_System Wide Area Augmentation System]</ref>. At present, WAAS supports en-route, terminal and approach operations down to a full LPV-200 (CAT-I like Approach Capability) for the CONUS, Mexico and Canada.
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On July 10, 2003, the WAAS system was certified for safety-of-life aviation, covering 95% of the contiguous U.S. and part of Alaska <ref name="STANFORD_WAAS"/><ref>[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wide_Area_Augmentation_System Wide Area Augmentation System]</ref>. At present, WAAS supports en-route, terminal and approach operations down to a full LPV-200 (CAT-I like Approach Capability) for the CONUS, Mexico and Canada.
  
 
The FAA publishes real time WAAS performance at the [http://www.nstb.tc.faa.gov Technical Center WAAS Test Bed web site].<ref name="WTB"/> Typical performances provided by WAAS System when considering operating in LPV (Horizontal Alarm Limit = 40 m , Vertical Alarm Limit =50 m) are shown in next figure:<ref name="WTB">[http://www.nstb.tc.faa.gov/24Hr_WaasLPV200.htm FAA Monitoring WAAS Performances in Real-Time]</ref>
 
The FAA publishes real time WAAS performance at the [http://www.nstb.tc.faa.gov Technical Center WAAS Test Bed web site].<ref name="WTB"/> Typical performances provided by WAAS System when considering operating in LPV (Horizontal Alarm Limit = 40 m , Vertical Alarm Limit =50 m) are shown in next figure:<ref name="WTB">[http://www.nstb.tc.faa.gov/24Hr_WaasLPV200.htm FAA Monitoring WAAS Performances in Real-Time]</ref>
  
[[File:WAASCoverage LPV.png|center|thumb|400px|Typical WAAS LPV Coverage]]
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[[File:WAAS_performance.png|center|thumb|400px|WAAS LPV Coverage<ref>[https://www.nstb.tc.faa.gov/24Hr_WaasLPV.htm WAAS LPV performance in Federal Aviation Administration website]</ref>]]
  
 
==Notes==
 
==Notes==

Latest revision as of 09:10, 16 February 2021


WAASWAAS
Title WAAS Performances
Edited by GMV
Level Basic
Year of Publication 2011
Logo GMV.png

The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is the United States Satellite Based Augmentation System. The programme, started in 1992, is being carried out by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA)[1] and is specially developed for the civil aviation community.[2] The system, which was declared operational on July 10, 2003on July 10, 2003,[3] currently supports thousands of aircraft instrument approaches in more than one thousand airports in USA and Canada.[4] WAAS service area includes CONUS, Alaska, Canada and Mexico.[5] The WAAS programme is continuously in evolution; three development phases have been already covered, and there are on-going plans to improve the capability of the system in parallel with the evolution of the SBAS standards towards a dual-frequency augmentation service.[6], [3]

WAAS Performance

Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) performances are usually described in terms of integrity, accuracy, availability, and continuity. According to the WAAS performance standard,[7] WAAS service area is divided in five coverage zones:

  • Zone 1: CONUS.
  • Zone 2: Alaska.
  • Zone 3: Hawaii.
  • Zone 4: Puerto Rico and some other Caribbean islands.
  • Zone 5: US territory excluding zones 1 to 4.

The volume covered includes a region up to 100.000 feet above the surface. For zones 1 to 3, the area extends up to 30 nm outside the land.


WAAS specification distinguishes the following flight phases:[7]

  • En route
  • Terminal
  • LNAV (Lateral Navigation)
  • LNAV/VNAV (Lateral Navigation/Vertical Navigation)
  • LPV (Localizer Performance with Vertical guidance)
  • LPV 200 (LPV 200 foot minimum)

The requirements considering the different flight phases and coverage zones are summarised in the next table:[7]

WAAS Navigation Performance Requirements
En Route Terminal LNAV LNAV/VNAV LPV LPV 200
TTA 15 s 15 s 10 s 10 s 6.2 s 6.2 s
HAL 2 nm 1 nm 556 m 556 m 40 m 40 m
VAL N/A N/A N/A 50 m 50 m 35 m
Probability of HMI 10-7 per hour 10-7 per hour 10-7 per hour 2 x 10-7 per approach 2 x 10-7 per approach (150 seconds) 2 x 10-7 per approach (150 seconds)
Zone 1 Continuity 1 - 10-5 per hour 1 - 10-5 per hour 1 - 10-5 per hour 1 - 5.5 x 10-5/15 seconds 1 - 8 x 10-6/15 seconds 1 - 8 x 10-6/15 seconds
Horizontal Accuracy (95%) 0.4 nm 0.4 nm 220 m 220 m 16 m 16 m
Vertical Accuracy (95%) N/A N/A N/A 20 m 20 m 4 m
Availability (Zone 1 Coverage) 0.99999 (100%) 0.99999 (100%) 0.99999 (100%) 0.99 (100%) 0.99 (80-100%) 0.99 (40-60%)
Availability (Zone 2 Coverage) 0.999 (100%) 0.999 (100%) 0.999 (100%) 0.95 (75%) 0.95 (75%) N/A
Availability (Zone 3 Coverage) 0.999 (100%) 0.999 (100%) 0.999 (100%) N/A N/A N/A
Availability (Zone 4 Coverage) 0.999 (100%) 0.999 (100%) 0.999 (100%) N/A N/A N/A
Availability (Zone 5 Coverage) 0.99999 (100%) 0.999 (100%) 0.999 (100%) N/A N/A N/A

In this table, the integrity requirements are given as the probability of HMI, namely Hazardously Misleading Information. In addition to integrity, accuracy, availability and continuity, the table shows the specification for Time To Alert (TTA) and for Horizontal and Vertical Alert Limits (HAL and VAL).

On July 10, 2003, the WAAS system was certified for safety-of-life aviation, covering 95% of the contiguous U.S. and part of Alaska [3][8]. At present, WAAS supports en-route, terminal and approach operations down to a full LPV-200 (CAT-I like Approach Capability) for the CONUS, Mexico and Canada.

The FAA publishes real time WAAS performance at the Technical Center WAAS Test Bed web site.[9] Typical performances provided by WAAS System when considering operating in LPV (Horizontal Alarm Limit = 40 m , Vertical Alarm Limit =50 m) are shown in next figure:[9]

WAAS LPV Coverage[10]

Notes

References